Most Interesting Facts About Luxembourg Nation | Most Interesting Facts About Luxembourg Country.
Luxembourg is a nation in northwest Europe. It is one of the smallest countries in the world and is bordered by Germany on the northeast and east, Belgium on the northeast and west, and France on the south.
Throughout its long history, Luxembourg has been ruled by numerous states and royal houses, but since the 10th century, it has maintained its independence as a political entity. As “the Gibraltar of the north,” its capital city’s ancient Saxon name, Lucilinburhuc (“Little Fortress”), denoted its strategic location at the crossroads of the Germanic and Frankish empires.
Three languages are frequently used in the grand duchy itself: Luxembourgish, German, and French. Luxembourg is a point of contact between the Germanic and Romance communities of Europe.
Luxembourg’s ethnic groups and languages are a reflection of the grand duchy’s shared values and long-standing ties to its neighbors.
Luxembourg joined the founding members of several global economic organizations in the 20th century. The fact that the grand duchy joined the Benelux Economic Union in 1944, which connected its economy with those of the Netherlands and Belgium and later served as the foundation for the European Economic Community (EEC; ultimately succeeded by the European Union), may be of the utmost importance.
Most Interesting Facts About Luxembourg Nation
Luxembourg Communication Systems
Luxembourg has strong connections to both EU member states and other financial partners around the world, such as Japan and the United States, thanks to its cutting-edge telecommunications infrastructure.
In Luxembourg, the postal service is run by the government. Privately held broadcasting company RTL (Radio-Television-Luxembourg) Group SA, which operates radio and television stations in several European nations, is also a satellite operator with a wide range of channels that extend as far as Scandinavia and Great Britain. Possibly the most significant private radio and television network in Europe is RTL.
Politics and society
A constitutional monarchy with hereditary succession governs the grand duchy. The grand duke, who chooses the prime minister, has executive power. However, the grand duke’s authority is mainly ceremonial.
The prime minister and his ministerial council, or cabinet, who answer to the Chamber of Deputies, hold the actual executive power. This legislative assembly’s members are chosen for five-year terms by the general public. Since 1919, all adults have been required to vote.
Legislative elections have usually given rise to coalition governments formed alternatively by two of the three major parties: the Christian Social People’s Party (Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei; CSV), the Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party (Lëtzebuergesch Sozialistesch Arbechterpartei; LSAP), and the Democratic Party (DP).
Additionally, the grand duke appoints a Council of State that serves as an advisory body. It is consulted on all proposed legislation, offers the Grand Duke administrative affairs advice, and acts as the top administrative court when disputes arise.
Before legislation affecting their specific areas of national life is passed, three advisory bodies are also consulted. The first of these is made up of six confederations, three of which (commerce, guilds, and farmers) represent employers and three of which (labour) represent employees (workers, private employees, and civil servants).
The Social and Economic Council, the second advisory group, has grown to be a key committee for reviewing all projects. The third, the Immigration Council, provides guidance to the government on issues pertaining to housing and immigrant political rights.
The Superior Court of Justice is the final appeals court, and judges are appointed by the Grand Duke for life. Six magistrates serve as both the jury and the judge in the criminal court of assizes.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) member, Luxembourg, has a small volunteer army. A small paramilitary gendarmerie is also present.
Administratively, Luxembourg is divided into three districts, each of which is led by a commissioner chosen by the national government. Each district is then further broken down into cantons and communes, or municipalities.
The communes, each of which is led by an elected council and a mayor, are in charge of public works, health, and education. These organizations serve as the local representatives of the central government and maintain contact with it.
Land Comfort and soil
Luxembourg and more modest industrial towns like Esch-sur-Alzette. The valley of the Alzette River, which flows northward, forms an axis in the middle of the Bon Pays, where the nation’s economic life is structured. The Alzette, which joins the Sûre further north, runs along Luxembourg City.
The Müllerthal, a large beech forest, and an area of attractive ruiniform sandstone topography are located in the east-central portion of the Bon Pays. The Our, Sûre, and Moselle rivers form the country’s eastern border with Germany in succession from north to south.
The Moselle River Valley’s chalk and calcareous clay slopes are covered in vineyards and receive a lot of sunlight, giving the region the nickname “Little Riviera.” Rich pasturelands are supported by the Moselle and lower Sûre valleys’ fertile soils, in addition to vineyards. The former iron mines of Luxembourg are situated in the extreme southwest, close to the French border.
The weather in Luxembourg is mild and there is a lot of precipitation. Compared to the south, the north is a little bit colder and more humid. The Oesling has slightly lower mean temperatures than Luxembourg City, which range from the mid-30s F (roughly 0.7 °C) in January to the low 60s F (roughly 17 °C) in July.
The Oesling receives more precipitation than the Bon Pays, but the southwest and southeast receive the most precipitation—roughly 40 inches (1,000 mm) and the least—roughly 27 inches (roughly 685 mm), respectively. Compared to the rest of the duchy, the protected valley of the Moselle River enjoys a milder and sunnier climate.
People, Languages, ethnic groups, and religion
Due to its historical significance as a crossroads of Europe, the grand duchy of Luxembourg has been shaped both by the culture and ancestry of numerous peoples.
The most significant groups were the Celts, the Belgic peoples known as the Treveri, the Ligurians and Romans from Italy, and especially the Franks.
Luxembourgian, also known as Ltzebuergesch, is the native tongue of the people of Luxembourg. It is a Moselle-Franconian dialect of German that has been enriched with many French words and expressions.
The official languages of Luxembourg are German and French, with Luxembourgish serving as the official language. Despite the prevalence of foreign influences, Luxembourgers have a strong sense of national identity.
Roman Catholics make up the vast majority of Luxembourg’s native residents; Jews, Muslims, and Protestants (mostly Lutherans) make up the remainder.
In Luxembourg, a sizable percentage of residents are foreigners. This is primarily due to the chronic labor shortage caused by the extremely low birth rate among native Luxembourgers.
The majority of the foreign-born population, which makes up close to half of the total, are Portuguese, French, Italians, Belgians, and Germans. Many of the foreign workers are employed by the iron and steel sector, and many more are employed by foreign businesses and international organizations with offices in the country’s capital.
In contrast to the heavily populated and industrialized south of Luxembourg, the northern region is sparsely populated. The rural inhabitants of the north live in settlements with thick-set stone houses and slate roofs.
The capital city of Luxembourg, which rises in tiers, dominates the southern urban network. The Alzette and Petrusse river gorges divide the upper (and older) part of the city from the lower-lying suburbs.
A picturesque location carved into the sandstone cliffs of the river valley is home to a modern area that houses numerous European organizations.
Esch-sur-Alzette, the second-largest city in Luxembourg, is a historic center for the production of iron and steel. It is located in the country’s extreme southwest. Since the decline of those industries in western Europe in the late 20th century, its growth has slowed, along with that of the nearby iron and steel centers of Pétange, Differdange, and Dudelange.
The remaining citizens of the nation reside in comparatively small towns and villages. Numerous villages in Luxembourg date back to the Celtic and Roman eras or were founded in Germanic and Frankish settlements after 400 ce. In addition, hundreds of years after the castles themselves were abandoned, many medieval castle villages are still thriving.
The development of Luxembourg’s service sector at the expense of heavy industry has only accelerated a trend that saw a constant internal migration from rural to urban areas throughout the 20th century.
The thriving banking and finance industry in Luxembourg City, in particular, continues to draw immigrants from the rest of the country. The government is attempting to locate some industries in rural areas as a result of the growing population concentration in the southwest.
About one-fifth of the workforce is employed in industry and construction, while the remaining small portion is employed in agriculture and other activities. Around three-fourths of the workforce in Luxembourg is employed in trade, government, and other service-related occupations.
Since Luxembourg is too small to establish a self-sustaining internal market, its economy is notable for its close ties to the rest of Europe.
Initially, the iron and steel sector—which in the 1960s accounted for up to 80% of the total value of exports—was what made Luxembourg prosperous.
However, by the late 20th century, the nation’s economic strength was primarily attributable to its participation in international banking and financial services as well as noncommercial endeavors like hosting intra-European political events.
Information technology and electronic commerce also played significant roles in the development of Luxembourg’s economy in the twenty-first century. The adaptability and cosmopolitanism of the nation have led to a very high standard of living; Luxembourgers are among the highest earners per capita in the world.
Power and resources
Natural resources are not particularly plentiful in Luxembourg. In addition to its agriculture not being particularly successful, the 1980s saw the exhaustion of the country’s once abundant iron ore reserves.
There are no energy resources other than water and timber. In actuality, Luxembourg has very little that makes it conducive to industrial or agricultural development. Instead of natural resources, the use of capital and the workforce’s flexibility and ingenuity are the primary drivers of its economic growth.
The majority of Luxembourg’s energy requirements are imported. The hydroelectricity produced by a number of dams on its rivers, which supplies about one-fifth of the nation’s energy requirements, is the only domestic source of power. A tiny percentage of the nation’s energy comes from nuclear power.
Manufacturing and trade
production and commerce.
The government responded to this crisis by implementing policies aimed at assisting the steel sector in becoming more efficient and continuing to be profitable. As of the late 1970s, ARBED (Aciéries Réunies de Burbach-Eich-Dudelange) SA was the only steel manufacturer operating in Luxembourg.
In order to create Arcelor, which later joined Mittal to form ArcelorMittal, the Spanish company Aceralia and the French company Usinor merged with ARBED in 2001. At the time of its formation in 2006, ArcelorMittal was the largest steel company in the world.
The economy of Luxembourg has become more and more reliant on foreign-owned factories and other multinational corporations doing business there since the turn of the century. Tires for motor vehicles, chemicals, and fabricated metals are the main products of these factories.
The government started promoting holding company registration in Luxembourg in 1929; these large corporations, which can control numerous subsidiary companies, are taxed heavily in many nations around the world.
Due to the new policy’s favorable tax environment, many financial and industrial companies have offices in Luxembourg City, frequently serving as their European headquarters.
The European Court of Justice, the European Investment Bank, which enjoys decision-making independence within the EU’s institutional system, and several significant EU administrative offices are all located in Luxembourg City, which is also one of the capitals of the European Union (EU). The majority of the grand duchy’s trade in goods is with EU nations, particularly with its three neighbors, Germany, Belgium, and France. Together, these three countries receive more than half of Luxembourg’s exports and supply about three-quarters of its imports.
Luxembourg’s agricultural resources are very limited. Surpluses are rare, with the exception of livestock products, and poor soil conditions in many regions of the nation prevent plentiful harvests.
Most farming is mixed, which includes both gardening and animal husbandry. The majority of agricultural output is comprised of livestock and byproducts, with cattle production now taking precedence over pig and sheep production.
Root vegetables are the next most significant products, followed by wheat, barley, and other cereal grains. The majority of farms in the nation are smaller than 200 acres (50 hectares). Excellent wines are produced by the vineyards along the Moselle River.
Although the internal road network of Luxembourg is not extensive, it is well maintained, and several highways connect it to its neighbors. The Grand Duchy is connected to the Rhine waterway system by a port at Mertert on the canalized Moselle River, giving it a route for the transportation of goods internationally.
Since World War II, the government has been running the country’s railroads. They are mostly double-tracked, modern, and electrified. Trains make up a significant portion of international travel to and from Luxembourg, and there are numerous lines that connect it to its neighbors.
Findel Airport, located outside of Luxembourg City, has developed into a significant European airport used by many different airlines. The national carrier is Luxair.
The National Division is Luxembourg’s top football division (Luxembourgish: Nationaldivisioun, French: Division Nationale, German: National division). Prior to 2011, when the Luxembourg Football Federation secured a sponsorship deal with Fortis, it was known as the BGL Ligue.
It had twelve teams before 2006, but it increased to fourteen for the following season and has stayed there ever since. The reigning champion is F91 Dudelange.
The competition started in 1909–10 and has continued every year since, with the exception of 1912–13 and four seasons during World War II.
The event was known as the Luxembourgish Championship up until 1913–1914 (Ltzebuerger Championnat, French: Championnat Luxembourgeois). From 1914–15 to 1931–32, it was referred to as the Premier Division (French: Première Division; Luxembourgish: Éischt Divisioun).
It was referred to as the Division of Honour (French: Division d’Honneur; Luxembourgish: Éirendivisioun) from 1932–1933 to 1956–1957. Since the 1957–1958 campaign, the league has been known as the National Division.
A way of life
The Grand Ducal Institute, which has sections for history, science, medicine, languages and folklore, arts and literature, and moral and political sciences, is Luxembourg’s main cultural institution. Instead of acting as a conservator, it actively promotes the humanities, the arts, and general culture.
The Luxembourg National Museum (previously known as the National Museum of History and Art) examines decorative and applied arts as well as Luxembourg’s history. Other notable museums include the National Museum of Natural History, the Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art, Villa Vauban-Museum of Art of the City of Luxembourg, and MUDAM Luxembourg (Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art).
The City of Luxembourg’s music conservatory, national library, and national archives all see a lot of public use. The grand duchy also maintains cultural agreements with a number of European and other countries, which give it access to the best performing and visual arts.
The Grand Orchestra of Radio television Luxembourg, formerly known as the Philharmonic Orchestra of Luxembourg, is regarded as outstanding. It was placed under government administration in 1996.
Traditional and contemporary paintings and sculptures have a sizable market in Luxembourg City. The grand duchy’s architectural legacy spans almost the entire period of recorded European history, including Gothic and Baroque churches, medieval castles, ancient Gallo-Roman villas, and modern structures.
There is a tiny publishing sector that produces literature in French, German, and Luxembourgish. The newspapers of the grand duchy present a variety of political viewpoints, including conservative, liberal, socialist, and communist.
Through the RTL (Radio-Television-Luxembourg) Group, Luxembourg’s influence can be felt far outside of its borders. As Europe’s leading broadcaster of rhythm and blues and early rock and roll from the United States in the 1950s, the group’s early English-language radio service, Radio Luxembourg, had a significant impact on the history of rock music.
Welfare and health
In general, housing conditions are comparable to those in other western European nations. The many thousands of foreign workers and their families have, however, had some difficulty integrating.
While French is prioritized in secondary classical education, German continues to dominate primary school and technical education. Since the grand duchy did not have any four-year universities until the early 21st century, many young Luxembourgers have traditionally completed their higher education abroad.
The University of Luxembourg, which offers undergraduate and graduate degrees, was established in Luxembourg City in 2003.